Wednesday, December 19, 2018

Lexember 19th: ‘stare; overlook’


/ferˈwiːt.nɑ/ trans. to stare at, to gawk at.
Via Middle and Old Valthungian from Griutungi ferwītan, cf. Gothic fairweitan, from ProtoGermanic ferweitaną.ītna


/ˌuv.rɑˈmut.nɑn/ v.wk.2 trans. to overlook, to neglect, to forget about.
From Middle Valthungian uvrmutnon, from Old Valthungian uvarmutnōn, from Griutungi ufarmunnōn, cf. Gothic ufarmunnōn, from ProtoGermanic ufarmunnōną.útnan

Lexember 18th: ‘model, template’


/ˌɑv.rɑ.gɑˈrai̯s.nɑs/ model, form, muse, original upon which something is designed or patterened.
From Middle Valthungian avrgarēfsns, from Old Valthungian avargarēhsns, from Griutuingi afargarēhsns, cf. Gothic *afargarēhsns, from ProtoGermanic *afargarēhsniz.


/ˌɑv.rɑˈmuns/ model, paradigm, prototype, template.
From Middle Valthungian avrmuns, from Old Valthungian avarmuns, from Griutuingi afarmuns, cf. Gothic *afarmuns, from ProtoGermanic *afarmuniz.

While there is a lot of overlap between the semantic space of these two nouns, the main difference is that the former tends to deal with physical objects or people (e.g. a ‘model’ posing for a painting) while the latter is more conceptual (e.g. a ‘model’ for city planning).

Lexember 17th: ‘French’


/ˈfrɑŋk.iʃk/ adj.a French.
From Middle Valthungian frankišk, from Old Valthungian frankisks, Cf. Old High German frankisk.šk


/ˈfrɑŋk.iʃ.kɑ/ n.wk.f.ōn French (language).
From Middle Valthungian frankiško, from Old Valthungian frankiskō.ška

Rīks þiža Franka

/riːks ˈθi.ʒɑ ˈfrɑŋ.kɑ/ France.
From Middle Valthungian þiže Franke (sā) rīks (“Kingdom of the Franks,” cf. German Frankreich), from Old Valthungian þižē Frankē sā rīks.īks_þiža_franka

Lexember 16th: ‘cool, chilly’


/kau̯ls/ adj.i ‘cool, chilly’
Via Middle and Old Valthungian kōls from Griutungi kōls, from Proto-Germanic *kōliz.ōls


/ˈkœy̑.li/ n.wk.f.īn coolness, chill.
Deadjectival noun from kōls, from Middle and Old Valthungian kœulī, from Griutungi kōlī, cf. unattested Gothic kōlei, from ProtoGermanic *kōlį̄.œuli

Lexember 15th: ‘suffer’


/ˈθul.nɑ/ v.wk.3 to suffer, to endure. (Used with the genitive, i.e. to suffer from.)
Via Middle and Old Valthungian from Griutungi þulan, cf. Gothic þulan, from ProtoGermanic þulāną.


/ˈθy.lins/ suffering, enduring.
From the verb þulan. (Verbal nouns from non-class-1 weak verbs were assimilated to the weak i-stem ending – including any applicable umlaut – around the time of Middle Valthugian. We would normally expect **þulans here, from a theoretical Middle Valthungian **þulens, from an attested Old Valthungian þulǣns, from Griutungi þulǣns, cf. Gothic þulains, from ProtoGermanic *þulainiz.)

Lexember 14th: ‘thunderstruck’

Swēva þīfuns þrundnas

/ˈswai̯.va ˈθiːfuns ˈθrund.nɑs/ adj.a thunderstruck, amazed, astonished, bewildered.
A phrasal adjective (the word þrundnas is declined to agree with its noun or pronoun), this is literally the phrase “as though struck by thunder,” i.e. ‘thunderstruck’.
From swēva ‘as though’ (from swē ‘so, as, like’ and iva ‘if, whether’) and þifuns, genitive of þīfua ‘thunder’, and þrundnas, past participle of þrindna ‘to strike’.ēva_þīfuns_þrundnas

Lexember 13th: ‘fault, guilt, excuse’


/disˈ v.wk.1ija to excuse, to exculpate.
From dis- ‘apart from’ and kulpa ‘guilt’.ýlpin


/disˈkyl.pi/ n.wk.f.īn excuse, extenuating reason.
From the verb diskýlpin.ýlpi


/inˈi.lɑ/ n.wk.f.ōn excuse, reason.
From Middle Valthungian inilo, from Old Valthungian and Griutungi inilō, cf. Gothic inilō, from ProtoGermanic *inilǭ.íla


/ˈkul.pɑ/ō guilt, responsibility, wrong.
From Middle Valthungian kulpa, from Latin culpa ‘guilt’.
Syn: ferina


/ˈfe̞.ri.nɑ/ō fault, responsibility, culpability.
Via Middle and Old Valthungian from Griutungi ferina, cf. Gothic fairina; further etymololgy questionable, possibly from ProtoGermanic *ferinō.
Syn: kulpa

Lexember 12th: ‘dedicate, dedication’


/usˈte̞ːk.nin/ v.wk.1ija (ditransitive) to dedicate (something) to (someone).
From Middle Valthungian ustǣknjen, from Old Valthungian ustǣknjan, from Griutungi ustǣknjan, cf. Gothic ustaiknjan, from ProtoGermanic uztaiknijaną.ǣknin


/usˈte̞ːk.nins/ dedication, public honoring.
From verb ustǣknin.ǣknins

Wednesday, December 12, 2018

Lexember 11th: ‘to entertain’


/ˈfrau̯ɡɑˌhɑlðɑn/ trns. to entertain.

From frǭs ‘happy, glad’ (via Middle and Old Valthungian from Griutungi frǭs; cf. Gothic fraus, from ProtoGermanic frawaz), and halðan ‘to keep’ (via Middle and Old Valthungian halðan from Griutungi haldan, cf. Gothic haldan, from ProtoGermanic haldaną).álðan

Lexember 10th: ‘lightbulb’


/ˈljuːðɑˌtuŋɡlɑ/ lightbulb.

From ljūþ ‘light’ (doublet of ljuguþ, via Middle Valthungian from Old Valthungian ljuhþ, ljuhaþ, from Griutungi liuhaþ; cf. Gothic liuhaþ; relationship to ProtoGermanic leuhtą uncertain), and tungla ‘planet, orb, sphere’ (via Middle and Old Valthungian and Griutungi tungl, cf. Gothic tuggl, from ProtoGermanic tunglą). We might expect -hwerb here (‘sphere, orb’ in the geometrical sense) instead of -tungla (which usually refers to stellar phenomena – “the heavenly spheres,” if you will), but this refers more to their ability to emit light than to their shape.ūðatungla

Monday, December 10, 2018

Lexember 9th: ‘to conceal, secret, secrecy’

Today’s and tomorrow’s entries will deal with one method of derivation of nouns and verbs from adjectives using “i-stems”.


/ɑnˈlø̞ɡ.nin/ v.wk.1ija trns.

to conceal, to hide, to secrete.

From Middle Valthungian anlœ̄gnjen, from Old Valthungian anlœ̄gnjan, from Griutungi analǭgnjan, cf. Gothic *analaugnjan, from ProtoGermanic *ana-laugnijaną.



secrecy, concealment.

From Middle Valthungian anlœ̄gnī, from Old Valthungian anlœ̄gnī, from Griutungi analǭgnī, cf. Gothic *analaugnei, from ProtoGermanic *ana-laugnį̄.


/ɑnˈlo̞ːɡ.nɑs/ adj.i

secret, concealed, clandestine.

From Middle Valthungian anlǭgns, from Old Valthungian anlǭgns, from Griutungi analǭgns, cf. Gothic analaugns, from ProtoGermanic *ana-laugniz.


/ɑnˈlo̞ːɡ̞/ adv.

secretly, clandestinely.

From Middle Valthungian anlǭgnivi, from Old Valthungian anlǭgnivi, from Griutungi analǭgnibi, cf. Gothic analaugniba, from ProtoGermanic *ana-laugnibi.

Saturday, December 8, 2018

Lexember 8th: ‘to blink; to cause to blink’


/ˈbliŋk.nɑ/ intr. to blink, to flash, to flicker.

From Middle Valthungian blinkn, from Griutungi blinkan, cf. Gothic *bligkan, from ProtoGermanic blenkaną.


/ˈble̞n.ʧin/ v.wk.1ija trns. to blink, to flash, to flicker.

From Middle Valthungian blenkšjen, from Old Valthungian blenkjan, from Griutungi blankjan, cf. Gothic *blagkjan, from ProtoGermanic *blankijaną.

The main difference between these two terms is that the first is intransitive, while the second is transitive (or, more specifically, causative). E.g.:

blinkna: Þ·ōgana þis ǧužis blunkun
‘The creature’s eyes blinked.’

blenčin: Þat ǧus blankiða is ǭgana. 
‘The creature blinked its eyes.’

Friday, December 7, 2018

Lexember 7th: ‘extraordinary’


/ˌuːtɑ.ðrɑˈme̞ːns/ adj.i extraordinary, unexpected, outside the normal; irregular, abnormal.

From ūtaðra ‘extra, outside’ (from Middle Valthungian ūtaðro, from Old Valthungian ūtaðrō, from Griutungi ūtaþrō, cf. Gothic ūtaþrō, from ProtoGermanic ūtaiþrô) and mǣns ‘common, regular, normal’ (from Middle and Old Valthungian mǣns, from Griutungi mǣns, cf. Gothic mains, from ProtoGermanic mainiz).ūtaðramǣns

Sī ǣfta þō swinþi ūtaðramǣna fōn miþiža gahugiða sīnan a tenǧin.
‘She had the extraordinary ability to start fires with her mind.’

Thursday, December 6, 2018

Lexember 6th: ‘surprise’


/usˈfil.mi/ n.wk.f.į̄ surprise, amazement, bewilderment, shock, astonishment.

From Griutungi usfilmī, cf. Gothic usfilmei, from ProtoGermanic uz- ‘out’ and felmį̄ ‘awe’.ílmi

Þī frisǣtistu þ·ōsfílmin mīna þenis þrǭ!
‘So imagine my surprise when it exploded!’

Lexember 5th: ‘ship-wreck’


/ˈski.pɑˌrɛu̯.ri/ n.wk.f.į̄ ship-wreck.

From skip ‘ship’ (from Griutungi skip, cf. Gothic skip, from ProtoGermanic skipą) and rjuri ‘wreck, disaster, ruin’ (from Old Valthungian rjurī, from Griutungi riurī, cf. Gothic riurei, from ProtoGermanic reurį̄).

Itma nī wēsun n·īna uvralibins hun þižas skiparjurinis.
‘There were no survivors from the ship-wreck.’ 

Lexember 4th: ‘imagine’


/friˈseːʧin/ v.wk.1ija to imagine, to visualize, to picture.

From Middle Valthungian frisǣtjen, from Old Valthungian frisehtjan, from Griutungi frisahtjan, cf. Gothic frisahtjan; earlier etymology uncertain.ǣčin

Frisǣti hita: Sičilia, jēr njuntǣn hunda twǣtiǧiþrīja…
‘Picture it: Sicily, 1923…’

Tuesday, December 4, 2018

Lexember 3rd: ‘roll of coins’


/ˈskɑːtɑˌwɑl.u.ɑ/ n.wk.f.wōn roll of coins.

From skāts ‘coin’ (via Middle Valthungian, from Old Valthungian and Griutungi skatts, cf. Gothic skatts, from ProtoGermanic skattaz) and walua ‘roll’ (from Middle Valthungian walwo, from Old Valthungian and Griutungi walwō, cf. Gothic *walwō, Latin volvō, from ProtoGermanic *walwǭ).

Sunday, December 2, 2018

Lexember 2nd: ‘desert’


/ˈø̞.ðis/ desert, arid region; wasteland, barren place.

From Middle and Old Valthungian œ̄ðīs, from Griutungi ǭþīs; cf. Gothic auþeis, from ProtoGermanic auþijaz).

Saturday, December 1, 2018

Lexember 1st: ‘motor’, ‘mechanic’


/ˈwe.ʤins/ motor, engine.

From weǧin ‘to cause to move’ (Middle Valthungian wegžjen, from Old Valthungian wegjan, from Griutungi wagjan; cf. Gothic wagjan, from ProtoGermanic wagjaną) and deverbial suffix -ins (Middle and Old Valthungian -īns, from Griutungi -īns; cf. Gothic -eins, from ProtoGermanic -īniz).


/ˈwe.ʤi.ris/ mechanic, machinist. One who builds or repairs engines. 

From weǧin ‘to cause to move’ (Middle Valthungian wegžjen, from Old Valthungian wegjan, from Griutungi wagjan; cf. Gothic wagjan, from ProtoGermanic wagjaną) and agentive suffix -iris, -aris (Middle Valthungian -(j)arīs, from Old Valthungian -(j)ārīs, from Griutungi -(j)ārīs; cf. Gothic -(j)āreis, from Latin -ārius).ǧiris